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Failure Analysis and Treatment of Reducer Caused by Lubricating Oil


The speed reducer is a power transmission mechanism in a low-speed, high-torque mechanical transmission。 It is used in many fields such as construction machinery, lifting and transportation, smelting, petrochemicals, construction machinery, instrumentation, automobiles, ships, and aerospace。 Because the working environment of the reducer is often very harsh, malfunction caused by lubricating oil often occurs during operation。


First, the role of reducer oil

The lubricating oil in the reducer plays a major role in the gear transmission to reduce the friction and wear between different bearings and mechanical transmission components such as ball bearings, ball bearings, roller bearings, rolling bearings, and needle roller bearings, and reduces the contact surface of components. The frictional resistance between them reduces energy consumption, improves the transmission efficiency of the machine, prolongs the service life of various components, and ensures the normal operation of the equipment. At the same time, lubricating oil can also play the role of vibration absorption, cooling, cooling, heat dissipation, rust prevention and noise reduction in the speed reducer.


Second, the main form of failure due to lubricant oil reducer

1. Reducer internal structure design is not standardized
In the structure of the speed reducer, because the cover plate on the inspection hole is designed to be too thin, the screws are easily deformed after being tightened to cause a contact gap to cause oil leakage. During the manufacturing process, the casting is not annealed and a gap is generated to cause oil leakage. It may also be because there is no oil return tank designed on the tank. When too much lubricant accumulates at the end cover and structural joint surface of the reducer box, the pressure difference causes the oil to leak outward from the joint gap.

2。 Cabinet oil leakage causes environmental pollution
In the speed reducer, oil leakage may occur due to damage to the oil seal, damage to the gasket, loose oil plug, or breakage of the oil mark。 The oil may also be generated due to excess oil, excessive oil level, or multiple cold starts。 The blistering phenomenon causes a large amount of oil leakage at the vent plug and severely pollutes the environment。

3. Device damage caused by high oil temperature
During the operation of the speed reducer, the internal lubricating oil temperature of the speed reducer rapidly rises due to insufficient lubricating oil or over-loading of the equipment, causing partial damage to the internal parts of the speed reducer. Some devices do not eliminate the internal stress, reduce the accuracy of the reducer due to large thermal deformation, and some devices may cause damage due to the decrease of the material strength at high temperatures. In addition, some speed reducers with inflexible operation and severely depleted power may cause the transmission member to become stuck when the foreign matter intrudes during operation, resulting in uneven operation or abnormal vibration.

4。 Vibration and noise cause environmental pollution
After starting the speed reducer, the gears and bearings are worn out or the gears are not assembled properly. The machine generates large jitter. Damaged bearings, worn gears, damaged gears, or stuck foreign objects will cause the machine to emit large and long-lasting rasping sounds. The occurrence of these failures will cause serious noise pollution.


5. Bad gear lubrication causes tooth surface wear
Due to the poor operating environment of the reducer, the lubricating film is not easily formed and stably existing between the mating surfaces, resulting in pitting or frictional wear, deformation, etc. on the surface of the gear and the shaft surface of the bearing housing and the gear shaft until the gear surface is seriously damaged. Wear.

Third, the cause of failure of the reducer due to lubricating oil

1. Improper use of lubricating oil

Different parts of the reducer require different types of lubricants, viscosity and other properties. The choice of matching can reduce the frictional resistance between the internal contact surfaces of the lubricant, the wear of the gear surface, and the noise and vibration of the transmission. Improper selection of lubrication effect will be greatly reduced, dynamic pressure oil film is easy to break, gears and other surfaces contact each other, stress concentration, serious damage to the gear surface, and even damage the equipment.


2. Improper amount of lubricant

During the high-speed operation of the speed reducer, the oil pool is stirred vigorously and the lubricating oil shoots in the interior of the speed reducer. If the amount of oil in the lubricating oil is too high, oil leakage may occur due to the accumulation of large amounts of lubricant at shaft seals, end caps, joint surfaces, etc., and the running resistance of rotating parts such as bearings and gears may increase, power consumption may increase, and space for heat dissipation may decrease. The high oil temperature and viscosity drop make the oil film thinner, destroying the normal lubrication state of the friction surface, and causing serious equipment wear.

If the amount of oil in the lubricant is too low, the gears, bearings, and coupling surfaces of the reducer are insufficiently lubricated, fail to form an oil film, and dry friction occurs, also causing serious equipment wear。



3. Intrusion of air, mechanical impurities, and free water and other contaminants in the lubricant
When the reducer is in operation, the lubricant inside the machine is easily affected by mechanical impurities, water, air and other contaminants. For example, free water can cause the lubricant to produce acidic substances, corrode metal parts, and increase wear. Oil mixed with air can make the oil oxidized and degenerate, and even cause oxidation corrosion of the metal parts. Impurities cause the cleanliness of the lubricant to decrease, the oil quality deteriorates, the viscosity grade decreases, causing jamming, malfunction of the speed control system, and even equipment damage. .

Fourth, preventive measures

1. Selection of lubricating oil
According to the different working environment of the reducer, the different load size, the movement characteristics and the different types of friction, the right type of lubricant is selected correctly. Such as high-speed gears should be selected low viscosity, good fluidity of gear oil, low-speed gears should be selected good anti-wear lubrication oil, low-temperature operation gear should choose low-condensation gear oil.

2. Use of lubricants

In order to ensure the normal operation of the gearhead, it must be used properly。 1 Ensure that the oiler is clean and strictly avoid impurities and other pollutants immersed in the fuel tank to prevent water leakage, oil leakage and mixed oil。 2 The appropriate amount of lubricating oil is added。 The refueling operation shall be carried out step by step according to the instructions of the relevant manual。 In addition, the lubricating oil of the reducer should be replaced regularly。 3 As far as possible, make the lubricant work under stable and suitable environmental conditions。 The oil temperature during operation is generally ≤ 80 °C, so as to minimize the impact of the environment on the lubricant。

In addition, the rational use of lubricants based on the working conditions of different applications and different types of reducers can not only ensure the stable operation of the lubrication system, but also reduce the cost of lubrication. For example, the model BH-180 gear reducer, power 2000 P/kW, input speed 990 r/min, output speed 109 r/min. According to the tooth surface contact stress, it can be seen that this type of reducer should use the load type lubricating oil, according to the specification requirements, select the lubricating oil with the viscosity grade between ISOVG320 and DIN51519. Therefore, domestic 320 medium-load industrial closed gear oils can be selected, with a viscosity class of 320 (equivalent to ISOVG320), which can fully meet the requirements of the reducer for lubricants, and can guarantee that the FZG gear tester passes the test grade ≥ 12, ensuring that The normal operation of the gear reducer.


3. Pre-maintenance and troubleshooting
Strengthen the theoretical study of maintenance and fault diagnosis of reducer lubricants, master the working principle of reducer, so that the theory is linked to reality; regular inspection of reducer lubricants, immediately identify the cause of abnormalities, and early diagnosis and treatment of failure; The components are cleaned on a regular basis to ensure the cleanliness of the work components, enhance the maintenance of the components, reduce the wear caused by pollution, and extend the service life of the reducer.


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