Failure Analysis and Treatment of Reducer Caused by Lubricating Oil
The speed reducer is a power transmission mechanism in a low-speed, high-torque mechanical transmission。 It is used in many fields such as construction machinery, lifting and transportation, smelting, petrochemicals, construction machinery, instrumentation, automobiles, ships, and aerospace。 Because the working environment of the reducer is often very harsh, malfunction caused by lubricating oil often occurs during operation。
First, the role of reducer oil
The lubricating oil in the reducer plays a major role in the gear transmission to reduce the friction and wear between different bearings and mechanical transmission components such as ball bearings, ball bearings, roller bearings, rolling bearings, and needle roller bearings, and reduces the contact surface of components. The frictional resistance between them reduces energy consumption, improves the transmission efficiency of the machine, prolongs the service life of various components, and ensures the normal operation of the equipment. At the same time, lubricating oil can also play the role of vibration absorption, cooling, cooling, heat dissipation, rust prevention and noise reduction in the speed reducer.
Second, the main form of failure due to lubricant oil reducer
Third, the cause of failure of the reducer due to lubricating oil
Different parts of the reducer require different types of lubricants, viscosity and other properties. The choice of matching can reduce the frictional resistance between the internal contact surfaces of the lubricant, the wear of the gear surface, and the noise and vibration of the transmission. Improper selection of lubrication effect will be greatly reduced, dynamic pressure oil film is easy to break, gears and other surfaces contact each other, stress concentration, serious damage to the gear surface, and even damage the equipment.
During the high-speed operation of the speed reducer, the oil pool is stirred vigorously and the lubricating oil shoots in the interior of the speed reducer. If the amount of oil in the lubricating oil is too high, oil leakage may occur due to the accumulation of large amounts of lubricant at shaft seals, end caps, joint surfaces, etc., and the running resistance of rotating parts such as bearings and gears may increase, power consumption may increase, and space for heat dissipation may decrease. The high oil temperature and viscosity drop make the oil film thinner, destroying the normal lubrication state of the friction surface, and causing serious equipment wear.
If the amount of oil in the lubricant is too low, the gears, bearings, and coupling surfaces of the reducer are insufficiently lubricated, fail to form an oil film, and dry friction occurs, also causing serious equipment wear。
Fourth, preventive measures
In order to ensure the normal operation of the gearhead, it must be used properly。 1 Ensure that the oiler is clean and strictly avoid impurities and other pollutants immersed in the fuel tank to prevent water leakage, oil leakage and mixed oil。 2 The appropriate amount of lubricating oil is added。 The refueling operation shall be carried out step by step according to the instructions of the relevant manual。 In addition, the lubricating oil of the reducer should be replaced regularly。 3 As far as possible, make the lubricant work under stable and suitable environmental conditions。 The oil temperature during operation is generally ≤ 80 °C, so as to minimize the impact of the environment on the lubricant。
In addition, the rational use of lubricants based on the working conditions of different applications and different types of reducers can not only ensure the stable operation of the lubrication system, but also reduce the cost of lubrication. For example, the model BH-180 gear reducer, power 2000 P/kW, input speed 990 r/min, output speed 109 r/min. According to the tooth surface contact stress, it can be seen that this type of reducer should use the load type lubricating oil, according to the specification requirements, select the lubricating oil with the viscosity grade between ISOVG320 and DIN51519. Therefore, domestic 320 medium-load industrial closed gear oils can be selected, with a viscosity class of 320 (equivalent to ISOVG320), which can fully meet the requirements of the reducer for lubricants, and can guarantee that the FZG gear tester passes the test grade ≥ 12, ensuring that The normal operation of the gear reducer.